A Stereoscopic method of verifying Apollo lunar surface images
This article by Dr. Oleg Oleynik, a Physicist formerly from the Karkov State University in Ukraine, caught my eye because I used to be employed as a contract Metrologist, and spent my days measuring and aligning large components in the automotive and aerospace industries. I mainly used laser interferometers to get the job done but occasionally I had call to use a photography based system refered to as Photogrammetry.
Photogrammetry is the science of obtaining reliable information from non-contact imaging and is a simple as taking two images of an object from slightly different locations and calculating accurate distances to the component. This is essentially the same principal that Dr. Oleynik has applied to the old NASA Apollo moon photographs to conclude that their is a discrepency between NASA’s stated distances to the background mountains in each image set and the measured distances using the photo method he describes. Being a scientist, Dr. Oleynik provides the margins for error in each instance and leaves little doubt that something is badly amiss with NASA’s official narrative.
By Oleg Oleynik, Ph.D.c
Previously of the Department of Physics and Technology, Kharkov State University, Ukraine
Original article from AULIS Online
Photographs taken on the lunar surface during the Apollo missions are regarded as the most compelling pieces of evidence that mankind went to the Moon.
The photographic validation method presented here is based on the detection of two-dimensional objects among three-dimensional objects, and determining the mutual arrangement of these objects in space and the distance to them by applying a technique known as stereoscopic parallax.
The word parallax derives from the Greek parallaxis meaning “alteration” where parallax is the difference in the apparent position of objects caused by shifting camera position. To achieve such a result, images are overlapped and are deducted/subtracted from each other using the function “difference” in an image processing application such as Photoshop®. Optical transformations are used when images are subtracted. During image convergence simple operations are applied: x and y axis scaling, rotation and distortion plus two additional processes: perspective and shift.
Such processes are referred to below as “optical transformations”. Objects further than two kilometres distant, with a minor camera shift, have zero parallax. Using Photoshop® the sequence of steps deployed is as follows:
- Two overlapping images are placed on different layers – thereby creating a PSD file.
- Application of function “difference” to the upper layer (subtraction of images from each other).
- Optical transformations are applied: axes x and y scaling, rotation, distortion, perspective and in addition a shift to the requirement specified above. As a result maximum density black for the background is obtained.
- The layer is returned to the normal view: function “normal”.
- The PSD file is pruned to remove non-overlapping parts.
- Sequentially, the converted layers are carried over into the application’s GIF animator.
- A stereoscopic GIF image is obtained that permits the creation of a 3D effect, even on a flat screen.
Image source: Wikipedia
Fig. 1. A stereoscopic image or ‘wiggle’ stereoscopy. GIF-animation allows the creation of a crude sense of dimensionality, even with monocular vision. Stereoscopic imagery can also determine the relative position of objects in space and enable judgment of their remoteness.
If any given image was taken inside a pavilion or dome with a panoramic background, i.e. when there are no distant objects with null parallax, then such a 2-dimensional object can be detected among any 3D bodies. In the case of such a finding, reaching the conclusion that there was deception could be stated with confidence.
Example 1. The method of creating a stereoscopic image is examined in the following example of images of the Zmievskaya power plant, Kharkov region, Ukraine. The camera shift is 1.5 m.
The distance to the power plant is about 4 kms and to the tree planting (left horizon) is about 2 kms.
The image convergence shown below (the main criteria is the most complete background subtraction, and since the distance is more than 3 kms, the parallax is zero).
Images are processed in a GIF-animator to obtain a stereoscopic image:
(For more detailed information on creating stereoscopic images and obtaining intermediate images see this article – in Russian).
It is now possible to measure the parallax and the distance to all remote objects.
Read the full article at AULIS Online